# How to calculate diversity and maximum demand

##### How to calculate diversity and maximum demand?

To calculate the maximum demand of electrical circuits by applying diversity, first you need to know the total connected load. The total connected electrical load is all of the loads added together. Diversity might also be applied to individual items of electrical equipment such as a cooker.

#### Diversity Calculation Software

Try out our new cloud based version

### What is Diversity?

Electrical Diversity is a factor applied as an allowance of load not likely to be used at the same time, for example:

If load 1 is only used 50% of the time and load 2 is only used the remaining 50% of the time,

20 Amps (Total Connected Load) x 0.5 (Diversity Factor @ 50%)  = 10 Amps (Maximum Demand).

This method may be referred to as a usage factor (UF).

For another example a 32 Amp ring final circuit for standard 13 amp socket-outlets, every socket-outlet on the circuit are very unlikely to all be used at the same time, therefore the On-Site Guide offers a diversity factor calculation which maybe applied to this circuit.

The IET On-Site Guide offers some guidance on applying diversity to different types of loads and varying types of premises.

### What is Maximum Demand?

Maximum demand is the load after applying diversity, for example:
Total Connected Load x Diversity = Maximum Demand.

## After Diversity Maximum Demand (ADMD)

After diversity maximum demand (ADMD) is used in the design of electricity distribution networks. ADMD is the load after applying diversity, for example: Load x Diversity = After diversity maximum demand (ADMD).

### How to Calculate Diversity

There are many ways to apply different electrical diversity factors to different types of electrical loads, fixed equipment or electrical circuits. Calculating diversity is not an exact science since there are multiple varying factors which must be considered when calculating diversity and maximum demand, these factors will vary from premises to premises.

It is also worth considering the life span of the electrical installation as should the way the installation is used change then the diversity factors applied previously may no longer be relevant.

As a very basic example to calculate diversity for a cooker in a dwelling, based on Appendix A of the OSG:

• Cooker = 8kW
• 8kW ÷ 230v = 34.78 Amps

The first 10 Amps + 30% of the remaining load so, 10 Amps + 7.43 Amps = Total (after diversity) 17.43 Amps.

Diversity can be applied to a cooker as it is very unlikely that the oven, grill and all 4 hob rings are going to be heating all at the same time, once the oven or hob ring has reached its target temperature then it will switch itself off until the temperature drops.

Some types are load are not permitted to have diversity to be applied such as electric heaters and showers because it is either on or off.

### Usage Factors

The designer of an electrical installation might also take into account that certain circuits or loads within the installation are not likely to be used at the exact same time so they might apply a usage factor (UF) to those loads.

An example of this might be in a premises with a master water heater and a backup water heater, the backup water heater can only be used if the master water heater fails.

### Diversity Factors

What diversity factor should i use? Although there is some guidance in the OSG unfortunately there is no single answer to this one, which is why applying diversity to connected loads can be time consuming and complicated, detailed knowledge of the electrical installation in question and experience is required to decide on which diversity factors to use and apply to the connected electrical loads.

A diversity factor defined by the following formula: